Boot Camp Flaws Part II: Diet
Last week, was the first installment of Boot Camp Flaws (BCF) . Read part I here.
Unfortunately, many boot camps train their clients like professional athletes without providing them supportive care required. Another BCF is not addressing the client’s goals appropriately. A lot of boot camp attendees strive for weight loss, but research suggests exercise will not burn the amount of calories to bring truth to calories in/calories out thought process. This topic is not addressed because many boot camps do not know anything about diet and weight loss. However, many agree diet and nutrition is the most important aspect of weight loss. However, many diets are burdensome and unrealistic. Remember, a diet must be something we can follow for life!
Before we get into diet, it is essential to understand the history of humanoids, then diet.
Diet and Evolution Timeline
- 7 million years ago: First history of human ancestors.
- 6-3.5 million years ago: Bipedalism and carnivorous lifestyle.
- 500,000 years ago: Spears, butchering sites found, and recognized as tools for hunting.
- 200,000: years ago: Mitochondrial Eve. Read the Wikipedia link for more information, but it means the female ancestor which everyone shares DNA.
- 200-100,000 years ago: Believed date of first modern human, Homo erectus.
- 75,000 years ago: Toba eruption, population bottleneck decreasing breeding population to 10,000 or lower.
- 40-50,000 years ago: Modern humans possibly appear as a result of a major genetic mutation or a biological reorganization of the brain by the emergence of modern human natural languages.
- 30,000 years ago: Neanderthals disappear. A couple of theories exist, 1) climate change, 2) interaction/replacement with modern humans, 3) interbreeding theory.
- 15,000 years ago: End of last glacial period (Wurm glacier) and Bering migration connecting Siberia with Alaska.
- 11,000 years ago: Beginning of agriculture which allowed further development in projects other than hunger. Agriculture allowed humans to expand from over 15 million.
- 8,000 years ago: Crop failures, mass starvation, local epidemics, tuberculosis decrease human populations.
- 1,400 years ago: Pathogen breeding cycle, cross over, pandemics decrease human populations.
- 300 years ago: Industry development, urban growth, and London becomes Mecca of world.
- 200 years ago: Milling, public sanitation, and rickets occur. Rickets helps connect food and health.
- 100 years ago: Vegetable oils, hydrogenation, sugar become common in households.
- 40 years ago: Fitness evolution began as recommendations on exercise amounts were introduced. Introduction of high fructose corn syrup in Japan.
- 30 years ago: Low fat, high carbohydrate diets are common, heart disease, obesity epidemic begins. Danish researchers trained sedentary subjects to run marathons (18 months of training). Male Subjects lost 5 lbs of body fat and women had no change in body composition, suggesting cardiovascular exercise has minimal change on body composition. National Institute of Health had obesity conference and experts determined exercise and weight control are less correlated than believed.
- 28 years ago: Regan and USDA started “war on poverty” to improve sub-nutrition. Fructose (most commonly high fructose corn syrup) was added to many foods to improve palatability, browning agents, volume of food production, and removal of fiber used to improve shelf life. Past 30 years Americans have decreased fiber intake from 300 to 12 g.
- 10 years ago: CBS “fat intake is now at an all-time low, and obesity is at an all-time high.” Suggest fat intake does not correlate with fat mass.
- 5 years ago: Epidemic of obesity is not only in children, teens and adults. Infants 6 month olds, not just in America, but around the world have an epidemic in obesity.
- 1 year ago: America spends $147 billion annually on obesity, nearly 10% of all medical spending.
- 30 years ahead: Expected rise in obesity rates: 36.5% US, 75.5% China, 134% India (Yach 2006). Developed countries: 19.8%. Developing countries: 124%. Will obesity be passed to developing countries, like cigarettes?
Throughout this evolution and history, Americans have decreased fat intake and increased exercise, but obesity still runs rampant. Is fat and exercise the key to the obesity problem? Or are they the scapegoats, the Steve Bartman of obesity? Maybe overeating and calories in/out are the bigger issue? Perhaps eating more calories than you burn leads to excess fat? To understand this issue in more detail, let’s look at a timeline of times of malnutrition:
History of Malnutrition
- 1900: Pima (group of Native Americans) highest incidence of obesity and diabetes. Pima had a weight problem before the Second World War. 1901-1905 two anthropologist studied the Pima, Frank Russell, and noted their obesity. However, in 1850 Pima were good hunters and were good growers with minimal obesity. In 1870, Pima had fathom and went through despair, at this time they got fat. Why did they get fat on lack of food and eating rations instead of food they caught? Pima diets in 1900 turned to similar diets we see today Pima bought sugar, coffee and canned goods to replace foods they hunted and gathered in past. These preserved foods were the only fuel source for the Pima, causing the body to rapidly slow its metabolism and use every calorie for storage.
- 1920: Sioux Native Americans went through malnutrition in 1920 which presented with obesity in the same population
- 1951: Naples Italy, decrease in economy secondary to Second World War, little meat was consumed and malnutrition accompanied with obesity.
- 1961-1963: Trinidad West Indies, malnutrition and obesity coincide. Average caloric intake estimated at 2000 per day. This is 1,000 calories less per day than the USADA recommends, suggesting calories in and out don’t add up.
- 1974: Chile lowest incidence of obesity. If we want to prevent subnutrition we need people to eat more, if we want to prevent malnutrition we need to provide correct food to eat.
- 1981-1983: Texas 1100 Mexican Americans 40% obese despite active workers. Does activity level truly correlate with weight?
Hopefully this makes the case against starvation diet, fat intake, and exercise as the “sole” means of weight loss. If we want to prevent subnutrition we need people to eat more, if we want to prevent malnutrition we need to offer correct food to eat. Next week, I will discuss the typical dieter steps and why decreasing food frequency and volume of intake can cause chronic weight gain.